Stocking refers to releases of translocated or captively raised individuals. In the Baltic Sea stocking is performed to increase commercial or sport catches of salmon, trout, whitefish, grayling, pike, pikeperch, eel, and perch.

Stocking can result in adverse genetic change to wild populations. The population genetic structure can be changed (purple box) and variation within individual populations can be changed and/or reduced which can result in loss of genetic adaptations to the local environment (red boxes).


Key publications

Laikre L, Schwartz MK, Waples RS, Ryman N, and The GeM Working Group.Compromising genetic diversity in the wild: unmonitored large-scale release of plants and animals. (2010) Trends in Ecology and Evolution 25:520-529. PubMed



Genetic concerns in fish stocking: what does the institutional framework say and how is it implemented? 

Legal documents and policies for the 



Linda Laikre, Stockholm University, Sweden
Annica Sandström, Luleå University of Technology, Sweden

Responsible editor: Linda Laikre 
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